Updated: June 14, 2018
If your air conditioner was installed before 2010 and you don’t know what R22 is then you should probably find out more. R22 refrigerant is a chemical that keeps the air coming from your air conditioning system cool, so it’s unquestionably incredibly critical. Most air conditioning units older than 10 years use an AC refrigerant called R22 that’s commonly identified as Freon*, and is referred to by the EPA as HCFC-22. In this guide, we’ll use the name R22. This refrigerant was introduced in the 1950s and became the predominant AC refrigerant in the residential heating and cooling industry.
The Montreal Protocol
Moving ahead a few decades the world realized that R22 refrigerant was aiding in the depletion of the Earth’s ozone layer. Not a great thing. So, the U.S. EPA, in cooperation with other agencies and groups around the world, began a phase out of several ozone-depleting agents as part of an international agreement known as the Montreal Protocol. The regulation lists many HCFCs and CFCs (different types of refrigerants that deplete the ozone layer), but R22 is recognized as one of the worst offenders.
Timeline and R22 phase out progress in 2018
In 2003, the phase out of R22 production and imports commenced. By the start of 2010 the production and import of R22 was reduced. However, servicing current, existing equipment is still allowed if there is an available supply of R22. To guarantee the public’s compliance with the new law, all sales of R22 must be acquired by a certified technician. The production and import of R22 will be continually reduced by law until 2020, when all production and import will be eliminated. Only recycled R22 refrigerant will be obtainable to service existing air conditioners after 2020.
The graph above shows the EPA’s consumption allowance of R22 by percentage. The limits on R22 consumption were implemented in 2010 and follow a declining trend until 2020.
So how does this affect prices?
If you’re thinking that this sounds like a great case study for an economics professor teaching supply and demand, then you are correct. As you can imagine, older air conditioners more often have leaks and need repairs. Any systems that are older than 2010 are more likely to use R22, which means there’s a lot more demand for it, and a restricted supply. Prices have only risen due to scarcity.
Don’t forget that in order to buy R22, you must be an EPA-certified technician. So, the normal homeowner is unable to purchase a cylinder themselves. Plus, there are some strict regulations now on how refrigerant is reclaimed and recycled, which adds to the cost. This expense is passed on to the homeowner as companies must cover the increased overhead related to R22 repairs. There are requirements for importing, labeling, record keeping, reporting, destruction and reclaiming of R22 from existing units.
So, how does this impact you?
The cost of R22 is dramatically increasing because of the dwindling supply, and new refrigerant will no longer be available for use at all after 2020, except from recycled quantities.
If you’re thinking, “Wow, this is starting to sound expensive,” you’re correct, it is. This is why when our professionals come out to inspect your unit we check to see what refrigerant your unit uses, and in the majority of the cases, we’ll advise an upgrade because of the increasing cost of sustaining an R22 air conditioner.
How do I know if my unit uses R22?
If you have an air conditioning system that was built before 2010, your AC will typically have R22. However, if you installed your air conditioner after January 1, 2010, then your system may not have R22. You can see the type of refrigerant your system runs on by reading the appliance’s nameplate. This nameplate is normally found on the outdoor condenser of your central air conditioning system. If you don’t find it, you can read your user’s manual. If that doesn’t work either, you can contact your local Service Experts center. If you have a maintenance agreement with us, we also have your information on hand and a tech can let you know immediately if your unit uses R22.
Instead of Freon, use Puron
The industry has changed from R22 to R410a, which you may identify by the brand name Puron. For the rest of this article, we’ll use the name R410a (although Puron is a familiar brand, there are other companies that make R410a). There are some key benefits to switching from an R22 air conditioning unit to one that uses R410a. It offers a higher safety rating and an ozone depletion rating of zero, and it performed slightly better on energy-efficiency tests than R22.
The truth about “drop-ins” is that there is no “drop-in” solution where you simply swap out the refrigerant.
You may have heard information about “drop-in” replacements for R22. We strongly against against this route. Typically a homeowner who is concerned about the cost of replacing their air conditioner seeks out an alternative, and this appears to be an easy solution. It often costs the homeowner more money, and nearly always voids the manufacturer warranty. The reality about “drop-ins” is that there is no “drop-in” solution where you just swap out the refrigerant. The phrase “drop-in” is referring to retrofitting a system, which when done correctly can cost the homeowner as much, or more, money than installing a new unit that uses R410a. In part, this is because different refrigerants function at different pressure levels and demand different parts to run, which results in the technician needing to replace the most expensive components of your system to work with the new refrigerant. If this crucial step is skipped, your system will quickly stop working, and you’ll be forced to install a new unit anyway.
Your manufacturer will probably not pay for the parts to make this swap because retrofitting your AC system will likely void the warranty. It’s typically just a temporary fix, but buying a new upgraded AC system will probably benefit most homeowners in dependability, satisfaction, and long-term comfort.
It’s smart to discuss pricing options with your HVAC provider if you’re worried about cost. At Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning, we provide financing plans that make a replacement achieveable, and we monitor for any manufacturer and utility rebates that would make it easier to manage an unforeseen replacement. To reduce the chances of an emergency on a hot day, many of our customers elect to do a pre-emptive replacement, and replace an old system before it breaks down. If you’re of a similar mind, then you’re in good company!
If your unit was built after 2010, you’re probably safe
If your heating and air conditioning system was built after January 2010, the R22 phase out problem may not apply to you, because it’s likely that your system uses the new, approved replacement refrigerant, R410a. However, systems installed after 2010 could still use R22, so it’s ideal to check with an HVAC Expert. You can always find this and the refrigerant type by checking the nameplate on your condenser (the condenser is the outside unit).
What do I do if my air conditioner uses R22?
To recap, if your HVAC equipment was produced prior to January 2010, specifically if it’s older than a decade, you have some options:
- Purchase an upgraded, more environmentally-friendly system that uses R410a.
- Reach out to an expert to replace the parts in your current unit to help make it compatible with an approved air conditioner refrigerant. This is not what we recommend.
- Remain using recycled R22 and burn through costs like it’s the ozone layer.
To be clear, the EPA regulates the production and use of this refrigerant, but not your system. The law doesn’t require you to replace your air conditioner. Eventually, your AC will quit running and it will need to be replaced, and only R410a units will be available to purchase.
The best option is to get a new, upgraded air conditioner, specifically if your current air conditioner is already more than 10 years old. Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning has many financing options that help make the purchase affordable, and again, we look out for rebates from HVAC manufacturers and local utilities to help you out. New AC equipment will also be more efficient and offer you superior comfort, helping to lower your energy costs.
You could also pick the status quo and continue using recycled R22 air conditioning refrigerant for the foreseeable future. While this sounds like a good alternative, the cost of servicing old R22 A/C systems is starting to surpass several hundred dollars (easily a down payment on a new system). You may also see the prices increase as demand continues to rise on a substance that is no longer produced or widely accessable.
If you aren’t sure what type of AC refrigerant your air conditioning system uses, let us help. Reach out to Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning today and we can provide an inspection to confirm if you are currently using R22 and, if so, what you can do.
The good news
While making the transition to an approved AC refrigerant may be frustrating, it’s helping to save the ozone layer. These regulations will help defend the ozone layer in the Earth’s atmosphere, which helps block radiation from the sun and prevents serious illnesses, such as skin cancer. It’s not far-fetched to say that you, as a homeowner, are a large part of this by replacing an old R22 unit with a newer, ozone friendly unit.
If you have any questions, please contact us for a free, in-home consultation by filling out the form below.
*Freon is a registered trademark of the DuPont Corporation